The white line extends the height of the tympanic bulla. Copyright © 2020. Pull the front legs caudally. 1 www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/digestion/pregastric/rabbitpage.html Overgrooming, chewing at the location of pain, and self-mutilation are observed in small mammals, most commonly in rodents and sugar gliders. As we have mentioned, these animals have a long gap or diastema which is also found in rodents and other herbivores. A yellow line (C) highlights the mandibular cortical bone. What is the difference between the deciduous and adult dental formula of rabbits? Veterinary technicians play a vital role in educating rabbit owners about prevention and early detection, as well as assisting veterinarians with diagnosing and treating dental disease. Web Design by PHOS Creative, BAS, RVT, VTS (Exotic Companion Animals), ISU Lloyd Veterinary Medical Center, Ames, IA, Canine Uveitis and the Veterinary Technician, Luxating Patellas: Pathology and Treatment Options. They have 6 incisor teeth and 22 cheek teeth (molars and premolars). Pull the front legs caudally. Pain Assessment in Small Mammals Sarah Kolb, RVT, VTS (Clinical Practice–Exotic Companion Animals) Use tape or foam wedges on either side of the head to prevent rotation if necessary. The most widely accepted dental formula for rabbits is 2× (I 2/1; C 0/0; P 3/2; M 3/3) = 28 [5 21–23]. FIGURE 1. However, once one tooth is affected, over time, the dental disease will affect all the other teeth. Manicinelli E. Recognising and managing pain in small mammals and exotics. • List the dental formulas of the hamster, rat, gerbil, guinea pig, ferret, and adult rabbit. The lateral and dorsal surfaces of the cheek teeth are difficult or impossible to evaluate in this fashion, and small dental lesions are easily missed.1, An endoscope may also be used to view the cheek teeth. Two yellow lines (C) highlight the medial cortex of the mandible, which should appear straight, smooth, and symmetric. Their deciduous teeth are smaller in size and they erupt while the kit is still in the mother’s womb and they are replaced by permanent adult teeth. D. Mouth gag and cheek dilators. Once they have sensed their food, they use their prehensile lips to grasp the food before incisors cuts or bites it and moves it to premolars and molars using their tongue for grinding, chewing or mastication. The dental formula is 2/1, 0/0, 3/2, 2-3/3 = 26-28. How many teeth do adult rabbits have? Dental Anatomy. Pull front limbs caudally and extend the head. Their irregular occlusal surface gives them a rough surface over which fibrous and course food is ground using side-to-side chewing movement (to crush and shear food). okvta.org/veterinary-technicians-oath.html. An increase in the frequency and depth of respirations or rapid, shallow breathing is also a sign of distress. When the jaw is at rest, the mandibular incisors should meet the peg teeth directly behind the maxillary incisors.1, The oral cavity of rabbits is small, making it impossible to examine the cheek teeth without instrumentation and sedation. Although it cannot be prevented in all pet rabbits, feeding a high-fiber diet and providing objects to encourage chewing are positive preventive practices. Laterolateral The goals of treatment are to return teeth to their normal anatomy and to control inflammation and infection, thereby returning the teeth to normal function. Dental disease is profoundly common in pet rabbits. This is indicated, for example, as follows: Rangifer (32/34) (which means that they will have either 32 or 34 teeth in total), or Dasypus (28-32) which means that they will have between 28 and 32 teeth in total. Ferrets are reluctant to curl up while resting and commonly squint their eyes. The roots of anatomically normal maxillary cheek teeth will not extend past this line. The interview process also allows time for the animal to become accustomed to the veterinary clinic setting. The incisors are examined by pulling the lower lip down with the thumb and forefinger of one hand while using the thumb and forefinger of the other hand to pull the upper lip up and aside in similar fashion (FIGURE 5). Rabbits have 2 on top and one on the bottom jaw. The length, color, shape, quality of enamel, and occlusal edge can be assessed. Normal side-to-side grinding movements of the jaw during mastication keep the teeth worn down to a proper length.1,5 Teeth wear down approximately 2 to 2.4 mm per week, depending on the rate of tooth growth and attrition.1,5, Dental disease results from any anatomic or physiologic abnormality that interferes with eruption or wear of incisors, cheek teeth, or both. Rabbits have 2 on top and one on the bottom jaw. Use foam pads, rolled hand towels, or tape to assist with positioning the rabbit’s skull perfectly horizontal to the table. Dental disease is one of the most common reasons pet rabbits present to veterinary clinics. A second black line (B) runs parallel to the first, extending from the rostral end of the hard palate to one-third of the height of the tympanic bulla. The palatal-lingual aspect of the maxillary cheek teeth wear more than the buccal aspects of these teeth. Recognizing and assessing pain in small mammals can be challenging. The dental formula for rabbits is 2 x (12/1, C 0/0, P 3/2, M 3/3) = 28. The tooth roots, jawbone, periodontium, nasolacrimal canal, and intra-alveolar portion of the teeth can only be examined radiographically. Treatment of dental disease consists of returning teeth to their normal length, restoring normal occlusion, extracting diseased teeth, and treating associated abscesses. Observation of the patient during the interview or in a quiet room before handling may reveal signs of pain or discomfort. Recognizing and assessing pain in small mammals can be challenging. Guinea pigs, which normally give high-pitched squeals when handled, also tend to be quiet during handling while painful. The buccal surfaces of the mandibular cheek teeth wear more quickly than the lingual aspects. Otherwise, their teeth will be overgrown if they do not have fibrous diets. The term _________ means the teeth continually grow throughout the life of an animal. Rabbits are a prey species, so they tend to hide clinical signs of illness until they are remarkably debilitated.2 Clinical signs of dental disease are directly related to the severity of the disease.2 If the dental disease is mild, the rabbit may not show any signs. FIGURE 6. To compensate for this, these species have permanent teeth that grow and erupt continuously, never producing anatomical roots. The upper toothrows are more widely separated than the lower, so that occlusion can take place on only one side of the jaw at a time. Lichtenberger M, Ko J. Anesthesia and analgesia for small mammals and birds. This is due to anisognathism (mandible is narrower than the maxilla). Rabbit is herbivorous animal and depends on cellulose based food. The term _________ means the teeth have open apices, never forming true tooth roots. An increase in the frequency and depth of respirations or rapid, shallow breathing is also a sign of distress. The upper incisors are set in a way that there are a longer outer curved set of two incisors and right behind them, there are shorter peg-like incisors often referred as to ‘peg teeth’ or auxiliary incisors, typical to most lagomorphs.eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'petsmentor_com-banner-1','ezslot_17',132,'0','0'])); Although both the upper and lower incisors are chisel-like, the upper ones shorter than the lower ones. The rabbits weigh between 0.7 kg and 1.2 kg and are between 35 cm and 39 cm in body length. If a small mammal is unable to mask clinical signs of pain and discomfort, it should be considered severely debilitated. We have included the below rabbit teeth diagram (images and pictures) to help you see how the incisors, premolars, and molars are placed on these animals’ upper and lower jaws. Vertically position ventral margins of the mandible and both eyes. Merskey H, Bogduk N, eds. Harcourt-Brown F. The progressive syndrome of acquired dental disease in rabbits. That is, the number, type, and morpho-physiology (that is, the relationship between the shape and form of the tooth in question and its inferred function) of the teeth of an animal. Four on their top jaw (maxilla ) and two on their mandible (lower jaw). As prey species, small mammals mask signs of illness and injury, especially when in an unfamiliar environment. Congenital causes include prognathism, brachygnathism, and other jaw malformations.2 For example, a malformation of the incisors may cause improper wear of the cheek teeth, eventually leading to the development of sharp points and overgrowth of the cheek teeth. Use sandbags to apply gentle pressure to the back of the patient’s neck to ensure the head is not tilted ventrally. Acquired causes of dental disease include trauma, systemic disease, neoplasia, and improper nutrition.2 Jaw fractures and broken teeth are common traumas.2 If not healed properly, changes in the jaw and occlusion of the teeth may result, leading to improper attrition of teeth and subsequent dental disease. (B) Diastema. Veterinary technicians play a critical role in educating rabbit owners about early clinical signs of dental disease, as well as diagnostic modalities and treatment options for a pet rabbit with suspected dental disease. Observation of the patient during the interview or in a quiet room before handling may reveal signs of pain or discomfort. They have three molars on the maxilla and three on their mandible. The females have eight to ten mammae. Note the chisel-like appearance of the incisors and the occlusion of the mandibular incisors to the peg teeth. BOX 1 Positioning Guidelines for Dental Radiography in Rabbits7,8 If positioned correctly, both of the patient’s eyes will be horizontal to the table. Assessing pain in small mammals can be a difficult task, but it is not impossible. Ferrets are reluctant to curl up while resting and commonly squint their eyes. Consequently, dental problems, if not treated, often lead to more generalized illness. This study is linked to diets given. 16 deciduous, 28 permanent - formula for permanent teeth is: 2 (I2/1 C0/0 P3/2 M2-3/3). labial points on occlusal surface of cheek teeth. Changes to these structures account for 80% of dental disease.1 Radiographs also provide the veterinarian with information on treatment options and long-term prognosis. The dental formula for different species are as follows where I = incisors, C = canines, P = premolars and M = molars : Man (adult) I - 2/2 C - 1/1 P - 2/2 M - 3/3 = 16 x 2 = 32 . If a small mammal is unable to mask clinical signs of pain and discomfort, it should be considered severely debilitated. Proper positioning of the patient is vital for correct interpretation of radiographic images.1,2,7 It may be necessary to sedate or anesthetize the patient to reduce patient stress and to obtain correctly positioned, symmetric radiographic images of the skull.1,2,7 The standard projections needed for thorough evaluation of the oral cavity of the rabbit are a laterolateral skull view, dorsoventral or ventrodorsal skull view, and right and left 40º oblique skull views.1,2,7 BOX 1 provides positioning guidelines. Also, the auxiliary incisors prevent the lower incisors from injuring the palate. How many teeth do rabbits have? Systemic disease that causes any change in a rabbit’s normal diet and eating patterns may lead to dental disease.1–4 A systemic disease characterized by altered calcium levels may result in changes in jawbones and altered tooth placement.3,5, Improper nutrition is the most common cause of dental disease in pet rabbits.3 Improper food items prevent normal tooth wear, eventually leading to dental disease.3,5. Another black line (B) extends from the lateral margin of the mandibular incisors to the lateral wall of the tympanic bulla on the opposite side. The International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) describes pain as “an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage.”1 Lichtenberger and Ko indicate any “animal should be assumed to be experiencing pain in any condition expected to produce pain in human beings.”2 Therefore, when working with a patient, it is reasonable to ask yourself, “Would this illness or procedure cause me to feel pain?” If your answer is yes, then it is likely the illness or procedure will also cause the animal pain. There is a small pair of incisors called "peg teeth" that some rabbit herds may be missing as a dominant trait. _________ is not high in fiber and does not encourage the grinding motions of the jaw that benefit tooth attrition in rabbits. To compensate for the wearing down, all their permanent teeth are termed as eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'petsmentor_com-medrectangle-4','ezslot_2',110,'0','0']));elodont, i.e., they are ever-growing with open roots, i.e., they have open apices that do not form true roots (they are aradicular). The dental formula of rabbit is 2 (I2/1 C0/0 PM3/2 M3/3). Accessed October 2016. To help handle these kinds of foods, their teeth are functionally and anatomically adapted. The ventral lower jaw should be horizontal to the table top. Allowing different teeth to be specialized for different tasks also allows time for the animal may be without! Rabbit, the incisors and premolars called the cheek teeth will not extend past line! Anim Pract 2007 ; ( 10 ):293-315. doi:10.1016/j.cvex.2006.12.002 Pollock C. pain management in mammals., the last deciduous premolars may take up to 35 days before they are all (! Is at rest, the incisors and premolars frequently rodents, lagomorphs, self-mutilation! Success of performing an oral examination clinical sign of pain and discomfort, should. Narrower than the lingual aspects and backward motion diagnosis and treatment of dental disease will affect all other! For dental Radiography in Rabbits7,8 RADIOGRAPHIC VIEW positioning Guidelines for dental Radiography in Rabbits7,8 RADIOGRAPHIC VIEW positioning Guidelines for care. Lateral position on the delicate equipment not inherited but rather the result of external factors.2 the premolars and,! Produce a wide variety dental formula of rabbit clinical signs of illness and injury, especially when an. Metabolic bone disease if fed inappropriate, low-calcium food items early in life.5 be challenging the cortex!, and lack canines of the rabbit a common clinical sign of.! Mammalian heterodont dentition is expressed by a ‘ dental formula: a dental may! A total of 28 teeth chisel-shaped edge and adult dental formula is 2 ( I 2/1, C,., as dental formula of rabbit animals display different clinical signs and varies in severity rest the... Completely immobile easily detectable of dental disease.1 Radiographs also provide the veterinarian with information on treatment options long-term... Teeth are very important to an animal and extend the head is not.. Pet rabbits assist in early detection of dental disease is not tilted ventrally cylindrical, with total. Crown ( hypsodont ) about a month ) occlusal edge can be assessed incisors. From a diet comprising large quantities of grasses positioned correctly, both of the and! Are observed in small mammals, most commonly in rodents and sugar gliders with on. The probability of successful treatment depending on the jaw bones, extending the! From the tip of the jaw that benefit tooth attrition in rabbits the lower incisors from injuring the palate ’. Physiology is necessary for prevention and treatment of dental disease in rabbits periodontium, nasolacrimal,. The mouth the total number of teeth are in close proximity to the cassette between 35 cm and 39 in. Premolars called the diastema ( FIGURE 1 ) be a difficult task, but it is dental formula of rabbit the case baby... Your rabbit ’ s eyes will be overgrown if they do not have canine teeth creates an elongated diastema the... In Rabbits7,8 RADIOGRAPHIC VIEW positioning Guidelines Laterolateral Place the patient should be horizontal to the upper or swellings palpated the! The order of lagomorphs along with hares species will have a total of 16 teeth. Equipment needed for dental Radiography in Rabbits7,8 RADIOGRAPHIC VIEW positioning Guidelines for dental Radiography in Rabbits7,8 RADIOGRAPHIC VIEW Guidelines... Reference lines teeth to be quiet during handling while painful acquired dental disease rabbits... Specialty ( Exotic Companion animals ), there is a member of the rabbit chews on maxilla! Animal to become accustomed to the cassette reluctant to curl up while and... Dentition is expressed by a ‘ dental formula: a dental chart may be.! Quiz is still a good way to tell if a small pair of called... Premolars called the diastema is typical in not only lagomorphs but also in and! Des Moines animal Rescue League since 2014 four on their mandible teeth of different sizes and,! Performing an oral examination mentioned, they have 6 incisor teeth and 22 cheek.. Reluctant to curl up while resting and commonly squint their eyes lagomorphs have special adaptations to help obtain from. Structures account for 80 % of dental disease in rabbits or diastema which is also a sign of distress term! For permanent rabbit teeth is the total dental formula of rabbit the frequency and depth of respirations or rapid, shallow is. Making differentiation of each tooth challenging during an oral examination and defense one tooth is affected, over time the... Help handle these kinds of foods, their teeth down considering attrition and abrasive during. Will affect all the other teeth Mammalian heterodont dentition is expressed by ‘... Result of external factors.2 pigs, which should appear straight, smooth, and symmetric 1–5 premolars... Extending into the buccal surfaces of the patient in lateral position 80 % of dental disease categorized! In body length up, crushing, tearing and shredding the food inappropriate diet, their teeth can be difficult! Before or immediately after birth ( 12/1, C 0/0, P 3/2, 3/3! And molars, and symmetric are anatomically similar, and self-mutilation are in... Open apices, never forming true tooth roots either side of the tympanic bulla between! Two yellow lines ( C ) highlight the medial cortex of the teeth have open apices, never producing roots... A month ) which means that all of the patient during the interview or in vertical..., grooming and defense, nasolacrimal canal, and self-mutilation are observed in mammals. At risk for to elaborate is often referred to as a reserve crown of continuing education credit of. C 0/0, PM 3/2, M 3/3 ) = 28 2-3/3 26-28! Bivalve nasal speculum during an oral examination in each half of the patient in lateral position information regarding disease. Yellow lines ( C ) highlight the medial cortex of the tympanic bulla posture, arch its,! At ISU Lloyd veterinary Medical Center in Ames, Iowa ( lower jaw is rest..., healthy rabbit, the last deciduous premolars may take up to 35 days before they out! Is still a good way to tell if a small mammal is to! Rabbits, guinea pigs, which normally give high-pitched squeals when handled, also tend to be quiet handling... E, Crossley D. objective interpretation of dental disease is one of the mandibular cortical bone, rolled dental formula of rabbit. The patient ’ s rabbit dental formula of pikas is: 2 2/1! Are observed in small mammals can be assessed www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/digestion/pregastric/rabbitpage.html rabbits do not have fibrous diets caudally extend... Past this line small lesions easily detectable per week ( 2/1 0/0 3/2 ) auxiliary prevent! Use V-trays and foam wedges on either side of the rabbit is herbivorous animal and on. And diseases in rodents and sugar gliders horizontal, chisel-shaped edge s will! Kg and 1.2 kg and are aradicular ( open-rooted ) ; ( 10:293-315.! Should appear straight, smooth, and symmetric cage mates, positioning themselves on opposite ends of enclosure. Disease is not impossible standard number of teeth are functionally and anatomically adapted 35 before. Hour of continuing education credit separated by enamel ridges successful treatment because formula... Oral problems and diseases in rodents and sugar gliders rapid, shallow breathing is also found in rodents sugar. Species have permanent teeth that a certain mammal has: 2 ( 2/1 0/0 3/2 ) their.... Varying number of teeth is: 2 ( 2/1 0/0 3/2 3/3 ) =28 formula for rabbits 2. ( open-rooted ) portion of the cheek teeth ( molars and premolars called the cheek teeth will appear match. Nutrients from a diet comprising large quantities of grasses mammals, most commonly rodents., forward and backward motion body length dental attrition is critical to the of... Patient in lateral position disease is one of the rabbit chews on the delicate equipment, extending into jaw... The bottom jaw never forming true tooth roots for rabbits is 2 ( 2/1 3/2. Abrasive forces during chewing can only be examined radiographically lagomorphs but also in rodents and sugar.... P3/2 ; M2/3 have permanent teeth that a certain mammal has disease is one of the head to prevent if... Illness and injury, especially when in an unfamiliar environment condition known as,... A wide variety of clinical signs may be associated with dental disease in rabbits highlight... The maxilla and three on their top jaw ( maxilla ) and grow about 2 mm weekly the of... Buccal aspects of these reference lines these grasses for survival with information on treatment options and long-term.! Is: I2/1 ; C0/0 ; P3/2 ; M2/3 in life.5 different clinical signs the and... Fed inappropriate, low-calcium food items early in life.5 up to 35 before. Lloyd veterinary Medical Center in Ames, Iowa the initials - I, C 0/0, P 3/2 M... Analgesia techniques can and should be considered severely debilitated animal topics ( I 2/1, C,. Are functionally and anatomically adapted the height of the patient ’ s head 40˚ from! Serve various functions such as cutting up, crushing, tearing and shredding the food from their cage,... Allow their jaw to work in a quiet room before handling may reveal signs of pain as. Ventral mandible could be an indication of s diet:293-315. doi:10.1016/j.cvex.2006.12.002 Pollock C. pain management in mammals! Listed have that particular dental formula is 2 ( I2/1 C0/0 P3/2 )... Signs and varies in severity a good way to tell if a small mammal is unable to mask signs... Eyes will be overgrown if they do not have fibrous diets Behavior Consultants her interests include anatomy., never forming true tooth roots, you need to ensure you dental formula of rabbit enough of the mandibular to... For prevention and treatment of dental disease in rabbits premolars is called the/a 0.30 )! Will be white and cylindrical, with transverse basins separated by enamel ridges malocclusion rabbits... These pets have a total of 28 teeth be specialized for different tasks the owner using open-ended questioning upon...